Charles Darwin's ideas weren't particularly new, per se, but he hit the highest, best notes of scholarship with his seminal work:
Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray, 1st edition
Through his scholarship, he helped become one of the unifiers of biology. In spite of the myriad of changes the modern synthesis has undergone since then, he remains relevant reading.